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The Island City of Mumbai has salty, humid environment and heavy rainfall as well. The city is surrounded by sea & has limited land. About 150 years ago, Industrialization and Urbanization started in this city. About 100-125 years ago, buildings of 4 to 5 storey were built privately in accordance with the then available technology and with conventional methods. These buildings were built of load bearing walls, wooden joists, posts, Manglore tiles roof, ladi coba flooring etc. After 1940, some buildings were constructed of R.C.C. Middle class families & workers started staying in these buildings on rental, basis. In the year 1948, the Government enacted the Rent Control Act, 1942. As a result the rents were frozen to the level of 1940. The owners of the old and dilapidated buildings having lost both the means and the incentive gave up to take care of their rented buildings and to maintain it. The tenants also felt that it was the only responsibility of the owners, both owners and tenants remained reluctant to maintain and carry out essential repairs to their building. Due to the salty, humid environment of island city of Mumbai, heavy rainfall and day to day aging of the conventional type material used for construction, the buildings went into dilapidated condition and finally started to collapse, thereby causing loss of life and property. To find out solution on this situation, the Govt of Maharashtra appointed "Bedekar Committee" which suggested to establish a separate Board to carry out essential structural repairs and if required, reconstruction of these buildings on the Island City of Mumbai. According to the recommendation of the Bedekar Committee, the Govt. enacted the Mumbai Building Repairs and Reconstruction Act 1969. Thus the Mumbai Building Repairs and Reconstruction Board came into existence in 1971. Previously, it was expected that the problem of Repairs and Reconstruction would be solved within 10 years. However, it was experienced that it would not be possible, as such the activity was entrusted to the Mumbai Housing and Area Development Board that came into existence in December 1977 under MHADA. Due to various work areas, the Mumbai Housing and Area Development Board was further trifurcated in November 1992, and a new Board, viz. Mumbai Building Repair and Reconstruction Board came into existence which is carrying out all the activities of the Repair and Reconstruction program of old and dilapidated buildings as per Chapter VIII and VIII-A of MHAD Act. 1976.

1.1CESSED BUILDINGS ON ISLAND CITY OF MUMBAI
There are 19642 privately owned rental buildings in the ‘A’ to ‘C’ category in the Island City of Mumbai considered under the Repair & Reconstruction Program which were constructed upto 30th Sept. 1969. The State Govt. levied a separate tax on these buildings apart from other taxes as per section 84 of the MHAD Act.
These 19642 cessed buildings are further classified into following three categories as per section 84 of the MHAD Act.
Period of construction

Category

No. of buildings

Upto 1st September, 1940

A

16,502

Between 1st September,1940 & 31.12.1950

B

1,489

Between 1st January,1951 & 30th  September,1969

C

1,651

Total  

19,642

During last 32 years, some cessed buildings have collapsed, some were demolished because of its dilapidated condition, some were reconstructed / redeveloped and some were decessed.  

As per the Pre-monsoon Survey carried out by the Board’s Engineers this year, the figures of buildings existing on site are as follows :-
Category     No. of buildings
        A               13,360
        B               1,474
        C               1,270
    -------------------------------------------------------
     Total             16,104

 

 

1.2          RESCUE AND RELIEF OPERATION:
 
Majority of these old building have outlived their life due to passage of time. So far over 24169 repair works have been carried out. Some Buildings are required to be repaired on several occasions due to ceiling amount prescribed for such repairs. Inspite of this it is observed that many building either partly or fully collapse especially during rainy season, causing loss of life and property. MHADA is required to provide rescue and relief operations including rehabilitation of affected during such a calamity.
  1. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN:

  The Govt. of Maharashtra has desired that the Govt. and Semi-Govt. departments in the State should be in preparedness for any emergency situation.
The disasters could be natural events such as flood, cyclone, earthquake or man made events such as fires, chemical disaster, accidents or sabotage.
Therefore, there is need for designing a disaster Management plan to ensure that the sources of hazards are controlled if possible and minimised if not and also facilitate implementation of rescue and relief operation including rehabilitation efficiently.
In Mumbai, MBRRB has up hill task of caring old cessed dilapidated buildings, which have outlived their lives. These structures are generally load bearing and Vulnerable to vibrations caused due to earthquakes and can crumble down, Mumbai has been classified in “High Vulnerability Zone” for earthquake tremors. Un-noticeable minor tremors continue to take place weakening the foundation of old buildings very easily as compared to buildings built with reinforced cement concrete. Secondly, the development of this old city is quite congested with practically no open space kept between the adjoining buildings. Also majority of them are mainly located along narrow streets. Any collapse of such a buildings leads to huge loss of lives and property, even dislocation of road communication thereby preventing movement of rescue and relief works.
The need for designing a Disaster Management Plan is to ensure efficient implementation of rescue and relief operations.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN OF MBRRB :

Disaster Management is an applied multi disciplinary subject. It incorporates classical management function, of planning and administration as well as Co-Ordination of different departments or organisations.MBRRB has prepared a Disaster Management plan to facilitate implementation of rescue and rehabilitation operations promptly in Co-ordination with Various departments and organisations. The disaster Management Plan structure would have three Components

  1. Risk Analysis
  2. Response Plan
  3. Mitigation Strategy

 

a) RISK ANALYSIS: - 
Though MBRRB has been repairing or reconstructing these old dilapidated buildings since the year 1971 within the limited financial resources, collapses in these buildings continue to occur due to reasons beyond it’s control. Unauthorised additions and alterations by the occupants, Overloading, increasing commercial activities, water seepages through toilet blocks, removal of props, poor or no maintenance etc, imbalances the structural stability. MBRRB has started conducting annual survey of each of the old building to identify the dangerous buildings or portions thereof and to take remedial measurers like propping and demolition of such areas. Dangerous buildings are also identified and occupants are cautioned to shift to the transit camps. This year 24 buildings have been identified as dangerous.
MBRRB has constructed about 18,723 transit tenements for rehabilitation of such dishoused occupants from these buildings

b) RESPONSE PLAN
MBRRB has provided a Control Room, which works round the clock. The control Room is provided with manpower, communication system and other equipments so as to deal with any disaster by immediately attending the site of disaster, organise help of Fire Brigade for rescue operation, clear the site debris and provide transit accommodation and other medical and monetary relief to the affected persons. Adequate Transit Tenements have been earmarked for allotment to dishoused persons. 
The Control room is also provided with communication system to call for help from other Govt. or private organisation at time of major disaster.

c) MITIGATION

  1. It has not been feasible to repair or reconstruct all the old dilapidated building within the available resources. MHADA has carried out 24,837 repair works and has reconstructed 452 buildings having 34,160 tenements. The task of reconstruction of 19,642 old buildings is stupendous. Govt. intends to invite private participation by way of grant of incentive in additional floor space index to accelerate the pace of reconstruction.
  2. The new buildings will be designed to withstand the seismic forces.
  3. MBRRB has entered in MOU with IIT, Mumbai for training its engineers for carrying out the safety analysis of all the cessed dilapidated buildings in the Island City of Mumbai. MBRRB is also in the process of Empanelment of experienced Engineers and Architects for carrying out structural audit and repairs/reconstruction of old and dilapidated cessed buildings. It is also decided to enlighten the tenants/occupants about the state of their building and encourage them to adopt proper and timely maintenance techniques. MBRRB is also preparing long term and short-term policy papers for effectively address these problems. MBRRB will insist to incorporate its policy suggestions regarding old and dilapidated buildings in the State Housing Policy.